Five Measures of Korean Interlanguage Pragmatics

Changseob Ahn

University of Hawaii


     This study is my dissertation project and will investigate differences among diagnostic tests measurements of crosscultural pragmatic competence of Korean as Foreign Language (KFL) learners.  A total of five tests including direct, indirect, open-response and selected-response types will be used to gather data from approximately 100 participants who are KFL learners.  Various statistical procedures (including intra-class correlation coefficients, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, a factor analysis, a two-way MANOVA, and univariate follow-up statistics) will be applied to investigate the reliability and validity of each test.  

Use of human subjects

     For this study, approximately 100 adult Korean as Foreign Language (KFL) students (18 and above) will be recruited from Korean language programs in American universities including University of Hawaii, University of California at Berkeley, and University of California at Los Angeles.  To recruit these students, I will be visiting the Korean language program administrations, providing them with a detailed description of my study and requesting consent for student volunteers.  If I receive consent, I will contact volunteers individually to explain my research ?including the purpose, length of session, and procedure.  If students agree to participate, I will arrange a mutually convenient time to complete the tests in the university language lab.  In addition to the possible language learning benefits through participation in my research, each student will also receive one gift certificate ($20 value) to compensate for his or her assistance with my project.  The students will be assured that their willingness or unwillingness to volunteer has absolutely no effect on their grades in the courses they are taking.  Moreover, their participation in the research project has no bearing on their courses.  After I have answered any questions that students may have, I will pass around a sign-up sheet with available time slots. 


     The original study by Hudson, Detmer, and Brown (1995) suggested that the tests be administered in the following order: SA (Self Assessment), LL (Listening Lab test), OPDCT (Open Discourse Completion Tasks), RP (Role Play), RPSA (Role Play Self Assessment).  These pragmatics tests will be administered to KFL learners.  The estimated time to complete this research session is about three hours.  The subjects will be asked to participate only once.  During this research session, the subjects will be asked to complete five Korean pragmatic tests.  The tests include one indirect measure (OPDCT), two direct measures (LL and RP), and two self-assessment (SA, and RPSA).  SA and RPSA will be self-rated on a 1 to 5 point scale.

The SA, LL, and OPDCT tests basically consist of twenty-four short descriptions of situations which elicit a request, refusal, or apology, in which factors such as Power, Degree of Imposition, and Distance are controlled.  For the SA, participants will be asked to think about what they would say in Korean in each situation and rate themselves on a five-point Likert scale (according to their ability to respond appropriately in Korean in the given situation).  On the LL test, participants will listen to descriptions of certain situations.  In the OPDCT, the participants will be asked to think about what they would say in Korean in certain situations and write their responses in Korean.  The RP test consists of eight situations, each of which has three speech acts (i.e., a request, a refusal, and an apology) in which factors such as Power, Degree of Imposition, and Distance were controlled.  In the RPSA, the participants will be asked to role play certain speech act situations, watch their own roleplay videotape immediately upon finishing, and rate the appropriateness of each situation on a five-point Likert scale.  The results from the OPDCT, LL and RP will be rated by four native speakers of Korean.  The raters will judge based on the following aspects of pragmatic competence: ability to use appropriate speech act, amount of speech and information given, level of formality, and politeness.  The samples and biographical data forms are attached.

Benefits of this study

The results of this study are intended to improve effective measures of Korean pragmatics in Korean as Second Language and Korean as Foreign Language instruction.  The results may provide insight into the usefulness of KFL learners?Korean pragmatic competence concerning their usage of Korean speech acts (apologies, refusals, and requests). 


KFL Learners' Ability to Assess Polite Request Forms

Andrew Byon

University at Albany / SUNY

     KFL learners?communicative success depends to a large extent on their ability to express interpersonal meanings with target-language resources. However, information regarding how KFL learners acquire or fail to acquire politeness through classroom learning is scarce.

     The aim of this paper is to investigate second-year American KFL students?pragmatic judgment of a polite speech style (perceiving contextually appropriate request forms in three different situations) after three and a half semesters of typical foreign language instruction at the university level. I address the following research questions:

(1) Are KFL students able to distinguish polite from impolite requests?
(2) What factors influence their success or failure in recognizing such stylistic differences?
(3) Can KFL learners notice co-occurring linguistic features of a particular speech style and associate the style to certain social situations, particularly when the content of a message and the speech style are in conflict?
(4) Does instruction in pragmatic features help learners notice them?

     It is hoped that the findings of this study will show the importance of KFL teachers?education in the pragmatics of the Korean language.


A new strategy to teach Korean grammar:

grammar teaching can be fun and effective with “Grammar Activities?/font>

M. Chang, Y. Cho, and S. Jeon

University of Southern California

There has been some discussion about the effectiveness of grammar teaching in the field of teaching foreign languages. As a way of legitimizing the role of grammar teaching, many researchers suggest practicing grammar in a meaningful context. The need for developing grammar exercises that can elicit real communication among students has been also brought up. Along with a concept such as communicative grammar practice, a research team at University of Southern California has incorporated “grammar activities?in developing a new Korean language textbook.

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the exercises for certain grammar items used in current Korean language textbooks and compare them with the corresponding “grammar activities?proposed by the research team. Some samples of “grammar activities?and their classroom application that has been videotaped will be presented. The effectiveness of the proposed “grammar activities?will be assessed by the feedback of the students and the course instructors. While it has been only a semester since this new way of teaching grammar was implemented, the instructors?general comments on the “grammar activities?have been very positive, and the students also have shown a  great deal of interest in them.


Intercultural Understanding through Global Computer-Mediated Communication

Intercultural Understanding through Global Computer-Mediated Communication

Sunah Park Cho & Stephen Carey

University of British Columbia

     This study examines how CMC can promote multi-cultural and intercultural understanding, second language acquisition, and critical thinking skills as a result of intense on-line written interaction.  Over 100 undergraduate students and instructors residing in four different countries - Canada, Japan, Mexico and Russia - had an opportunity to participate in an on-line global seminar. The aim of the seminar was to encourage intercultural understanding through discussing globalization from their particular cultural perspectives, to a) improve academic English writing and critical thinking skills, b) become familiar with cutting-edge communication technology and c) make international contacts. This study illuminates different cultural perceptions among different cultures and examines how the different cultural backgrounds affect the electronic writing exchange.  Also on-line interaction among the participants was analyzed to investigate how their participation patterns changed over time. Because intercultural communication is facilitated by asynchronous CMC, this allows a new way of teaching course contents.  Findings from this study will contribute to the teaching of Korean language and culture.  


Korean Studies Curricula in the Age of Multimedia Education

Young-mee Yu Cho & Ann Choi, Rutgers University

Kyeong-Hee Choi, University of Chicago

Hae-Young Kim, Duke University

1. Introduction

The panel reports on an ongoing project whose aim is to provide a rich array of writings and develop a series of multi-faceted study guides through meaningful engagement with texts of cultural, historical, and literary significance. The project consists of three parts: 1) developing multimedia materials for language instruction, 2) providing a systematic curriculum for introducing Korean culture, 3) creating a series of  Korean literature materials that crucially  incorporate visual and audio media.

2.  Developing multimedia materials for language teaching

Remarkable developments in linguistic, cognitive, and psychological theories of second language acquisition during the past twenty years have brought about a fundamental shift from audiolingualism based on repetition and memorization and translation-based language instruction to meaning-based natural approaches. However, incorporating communicative tasks into the KFL curriculum has been slow. Now that the role of foreign language teachers is firmly redefined as ‘facilitators in the process of language acquisition?rather than the traditional ‘dispensers of linguistic knowledge,?it is  imperative that pedagogical research should include  designing of a curriculum whose goal is to lead learners to achieve the desired proficiency level by incorporating lexical, syntactic, pragmatic, and cultural components.  In this context, incorporating cultural information into the existing textbooks and providing authentic input for grammatical instruction cannot be overemphasized. For these purposes, we will utilize Korean dramas, sitcoms, TV news, commercials, radio broadcast.

3. Developing Multimedia materials for a literature curriculum

Our texts are selected from a diverse set of authors in the following genres --1) oral tradition (folktales, historical anecdotes, foundation myths); 2) children's stories; 3) short stories and novellas (excerpts, if necessary); 4) novels (excerpts); 5) poetry; 6) essays.   Our reading tasks help students to develop linguistic abilities through meaningful engagement with a variety of texts. Three stages of tasks are constructed for each text: 1) pre-reading warm-up activities involving background information, main plot and key issues; 2) language, literary and interpretive activities organized along the structural, the stylistic, and the thematic dimensions, aided by glossary, culture notes, and comprehension and discussion questions; 3) post-reading activities to link the text to the inter-textual and extra-textual contexts--including the author's life and other works, critical debates, and  relevant works by other writers. The last-stage involves an innovative approach to the textual reading by including activities utilizing audio-visual materials such as film/video clips, music, art objects, cartoons, etc. (See “Linking a short story with a film (최윤 ?/span>저기 소리없이 꽃잎이 지고? 장선우 감독 영화  <꽃잎>?.

4.  Developing Multimedia materials for a culture curriculum

We started by compiling an annotated bibliography of multimedia materials for teaching Korean culture. Once the list of useful materials are determined,  we will provide a 12 segments that demonstrate effective ways of linking A/V materials with written texts.

As a sample, we show ways of reshaping Introduction to Korean Culture (Rutgers University, 574:210) to effectively integrate written and visual texts for teaching college-level learners.  This will be  adapted for use in high school instruction as well. There has been a pressing need to build a set of curriculum materials for general, introductory courses, particularly courses under the rubric of “Korean Culture?taught at various universities and colleges; this sort of course has often become the seed to be planted for a full-fledged program in Korean Studies.  Thus, a well-wrought curriculum would enhance the possibility of expansion of the desired program in Korean Studies.  In addition, educators at the secondary level have been requesting assistance and suggestions on teaching the subject to their students.  Though a number of translated works, especially literary fiction, make glimpses into Korean studies available, there is no definitive body of materials, consisting of various sources, put together for the very purpose of use at higher education.  It is also imperative that we include visual aids, i.e., film clips, to the educational process as we have fully entered the multi-media age of learning.  This project covers the above areas of need.


Many Functions of mwusun in Discourse: Interrelationship of semantic and pragmatic aspects

Jane Choi

University of California, Los Angeles


            Teachers of Korean probably have come across at some point in their career with a pedagogical concern of how to successfully teach the use of Korean wh-question word mwusun.  Previous studies (Suh 1987; Im 1988; Suh 1996) have claimed it as a question word which queries about ‘the type/kind of?nouns syntactically following it (i.e. mwusun yenghwa-lul cohahaseyyo? ‘What type of movies do you like??.  This seemingly clear-cut description, however, poses a problem in describing many of its actual uses in discourse (i.e. ?i>onul mwusun yoil-ieyo??is not inquiring about ‘the type of the day?but is querying ‘to identify the day of the week.?.  Evidently, the traditional description has its limits in describing the actual use and as a result, teachers are left bewildered about how to effectively approach the gap between the current definition and the actual use in teaching.  In an attempt to satisfy the pedagogical need, this paper investigates the use of mwusun in discourse to better account for its authentic use.  

This study provides an in-depth examination and analysis of the actual distribution of mwusun in discourse.  This is done by investigating a spoken corpus from an online resource  The tokens of mwusun were counted and highlighted by a corpus concordance program, Monoconc Pro.  They are then categorized into their specified functions (i.e. question words, discourse markers, etc.) for analysis. 

Throughout this paper, I will demonstrate that the actual usages of mwusun are not bounded to the conventional generalization (‘querying the type of nouns following?.  In fact, the traditional description is only a part of many functions they have in authentic discourse.  Moreover, I will demonstrate that their various functions are governed by the interrelationship between pragmatic and semantic aspects.  In addition, many uses of mwusun deployed in actual discourse do not function as question words (e.g. used as a discourse marker: yayn, wuli saiey mwusun, used in rhetorical questions: kukey mwusun kippun sosikini?).

The findings of the present study highlights that the function of mwusun is multidimensional in which the interpretation of its use is highly sensitive to its discourse context.  This underscores the importance of teaching mwusun via integrating authentic discourse.    


Linking Word to the World: Korean Language Learners in the United States

Mihyon Jeon

University of Pennsylvania

     Beginning in the 1960’s and continuing today, the fields of sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology have been concerned with understanding, describing, and defining “speech communities.?As contemporary language contact situations entail the formation of multicultural and multilingual communities, research on speech communities emphasizes the emergent, dynamic, and multiple nature of the concept. This study aims to highlight the ways in which literacy events in a college-level Korean class in the United States index multiple and dynamic speech communities and the ways in which this indexicality between word and the world shapes the learners? experiences of learning Korean and their sense of identity. 

     The setting of this study, an emerging speech community, consists of mostly second generation Korean-Americans whose mother tongue proficiency has not been fully achieved due to the language contact situation between an immigrant minority language and the host majority language in the United States.  This study draws on one year’s ethnographic study of an intermediate Korean language class.  Data-collection methods include participant observation, audio-taped classroom discourse, document collection, and interviews.  A fine-tuned discourse analysis of the audio-taped classroom interaction is adopted as a main means of data analysis. 

     The findings of this ethnographic and linguistic anthropological study demonstrate that the boundaries of speech communities are highly permeable and that participants constantly draw on multiple speech communities in micro-level interactions.  This study also shows that heritage language learning experiences of second generation Korean-Americans are crucially affected by literacy practice in which participants use words in a text to index worlds outside that text.  Korean language teachers in United State will find this study useful because the fine-tuned discourse analysis demonstrates what happens in a college-level Korean language class when the participants in the class try to link what they learn to the context where they live.  Furthermore, this study has implications for heritage language education, which is gaining emphasis as a means for ensuring a linguistic human right, a rich cultural heritage, and an invaluable resource for the world.


문법과 언어 교육: 한국어 오류 분석을 중심으로

정원돈(Jeong, Weon-Don)

세명대학교 (Semyung University)

  언어 교육은 듣기, 말하기, 읽기, 쓰기와 같은 가지 능력을 습득하는데 중점을 둔다. 문법은 가지 분야의 능력 배양에 필수불가결한 요소로 작용한다. 따라서 언어 교육에서 문법 교육이 필요하고 중요하다는 것은 인정하지만 문법 교육을 소홀히 하는 경향이 있다. 특히 의사 소통 기능을 강조하는 언어 교육의 관점에서는 문법 교육은 더욱 등한시된다. 이런 부정적인 시각은 전통적으로 교실에서의 문법 교육이 실용적이 아니기 때문에 의사 소통 능력 배양에 도움이 된다는 생각에서 기인한다. 예를 들어 전통적인 문법 교육에서는 매우 어렵고 불필요한 문법 용어의 설명, 복잡한 구문 분석 등이 다루어졌다. 학습자들은 문법 교육을 통해 구문 분석 능력을 배우지만 실용적인 능력을 습득할 수는 없었다. 결과적으로 학습자들은 언어 학습이 어렵다고 생각하게 되었고 문법 교육이 불필요하다고 믿게 되었다.

  문법 교육이 학습자의 학습 목표에 어느 정도 기여를 했지만 들어간 시간이나 노력에 비하면 효과는 적었다고 있다. 정확한 어법이나 문법 습득을 강조하여 의사 소통을 위한 도구로서의 언어 교육은 이루어지지 않고 문법 자체를 위한 교육이 이루어진 것이 사실이다. 따라서 문법 교육의 장점보다는 단점이 드러나게 되었고 의사 소통 능력을 강조하는 추세에 맞추어 문법 교육은 서서히 사라지게 되었다.

  그러나 문법 교육은 언어 교육의 가지 기능 증진에 중요하고 도움을 준다. 문법 교육을 통해서 구문 분석 능력이 향상됨으로 인해서 언어의 이해를 위한 단위 분절을 쉽게 주고, 문법에 맞는 제대로 문장을 말하고 쓰는 능력이 길러진다. 또한 장기적이고 꾸준한 문법 교육을 함으로써 목표 언어의 내재적인 지식을 얻게 된다. 이밖에도 학습자들의 나이, 성장 배경, 교육 배경, 필요성, 목표, 언어 구사 능력 등을 고려하여 수준에 맞는 문법 교육을 병행하면 좋은 효과를 얻을 것이다.

  언어 교육의 궁극적인 목표인 의사 소통 능력 습득이라는 관점에서 문법 교육은 무시될 없다. 구문이나 문장은 그것을 구성하고 있는 단어나 어휘의 고유한 뜻만이 아니라 상호 관계도 중요하다. 예를 들어 어순이나 기능 범주 등이 갖는 문법적이고 기능적인 의미가 결합하여 완전하고 진정한 의미를 갖게 된다. 이것은 의사 소통을 위해서는 문법적 요소가 필요하다는 것을 보여준다. 결론적으로 언어 교육에서 문법 교육은 필요하지만 어려운 문법 용어나 까다로운 구문 분석을 피하고 담화문법적인 문법 교육을 하는 것이 좋을 것이다.

  한국어 교육도 위에서 언급한 경향을 보이고 있으며 가능하면 어려운 문법 교육은 피하고 실용적인 문법 교육을 해야 것이다. 이를 위해서 실제 사용되는 문장에서 오류를 골라 간단한 문법 지식을 가르치는 것이 방법이 것이다.

() . 어머니가 서울가서방을 얻었다. (서울가서 방을/서울가 서방을)

        . 행복한 [] 읽기/행복한 [ 읽기]

        . 철수에게 물을 주었다./나무 물을 주었다.


       A Study of Contemporary Korean Poetic Words

Sunny Jung

University of California Santa Barbara

      Between poetry and language there exists a dialectic relationship in which poetry challenges the limitations of a language’s power of expression. Language presents limitations and constraints on how it may be used and understood, both through grammar and vocabulary. Poetry can often come into conflict with these limitations and, as a result, poets create new vocabulary and sentence styles in order to better express their attitudes, opinions, and philosophy. Consequently, a country’s language evolves along with its art and culture, and can often be viewed in context to a country’s history.

      In this paper, I would like to examine contemporary Korean poetic words from poetry books published from 2001-2002 in the following ways: First I would like to examine the use of Korean poetry for worldly concerns; economic, political, and social. In particular, I would like to analyze the poetic words that were created for this mode of poetry, which was very popular from the 1970¡¯s through the 1980’s. Kim Chi-Ha and Ko Un created unique poetic words using dialects, slang, and secret words to express nationalistic thoughts and attitudes.

      Secondly, I would like to discuss poetry that is purely for art’s sake. The poetic words that were created for this type of poetry are more similar to classical Korean poetic words than the first type of poetry. This poetry started in the 1930’s through the 1960’s by Park Mokwol, Cho Chi Hoon, Park Tu Jin, and Suh Jung Ju. These poets tried to preserve the beauty of native Korean poetic words. The themes of their poetry centered on nature and inner spirituality.

      Thirdly, I would like to discuss the influence and effect of English and other Western languages on the Korean native poetic vernacular. In particular, since 1920’s to 1990’s, Korea has been flooded with foreign languages, leaving an impression upon Korea’s art and culture. Poetry was no exception and many poets followed a trend of incorporating foreign words and expressions into their poems. In poetry from the time of Kim Kirim to Oh Kyu Won, many Korean native words were supplanted by foreign equivalent terms as a matter of style and unconventional expression.

      I am interested in writing a paper on the aforementioned because I thought it would be important for Korean language teachers to understand the highest form of the Korean language. In summary, I would like to note that Korean poetry and artistic expression has
evolved and become more eclectic through foreign influence. The importation and assimilation of foreign ideas; however, has eroded national identity. Therefore, as we are immersed in a sea of information, it is crucial for poets to acknowledge their own unique national identity.


The Functional Roles of Teachers? Language Use in the KFL Classroom

Sahie Kang

Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center

Some research results tell us that the more the target language is used in foreign language classrooms the higher proficiency level the students would achieve.  Yet some scholars and classroom teachers believe that students?L1 has a place in the classroom.  

This paper investigates how much English and Korean are used in several selected KFL classrooms and shows what the roles of English in the classrooms are when it is used.  The selected KFL classrooms were observed, and the teachers?use of English was recorded.  Subsequent to the observation, each teacher was asked to explain the why English was used.  The teachers?responses are categorized by the functional roles, such as academic, social, etc.  Also some strategies for changing such functional roles of L1 to those of L2 will be discussed. 

In conclusion, this paper proposes that the use of L1, English, has functional roles in the classroom, although target language use should be encouraged and increased in the KFL classrooms.


Duff, P.A. and Polio, C. G. (1990) “How much foreign language Is There in the Foreign Language Classroom?,? The Modern         

            Language Journal 74, pp. 154-166.

Duff, P.A. and Polio, C. G. (1994) “Teachers?Language Use in University Foreign Language Classrooms: A Qualitative Analysis of English and Target Language Alternation,?The Modern Language Journal 78, pp. 313-326.

Macaro, A. (2001) “Analysing Student Teachers?Code-switching in Foreign Language Classrooms: Theories and

       Decision Making,? The Modern Language Journal 85, pp. 531-548

Stanley, K. (2002) “Using The First Language In Second Language Instruction: If, When, Why and How Much??TESL-EJ Vol.5, No.



고급 학습자를 위한  프로젝트 접근식 소설 수업 지도 방안



외국어로서 한국어 교육에 있어 문학 작품을 통한 한국어 교육의 필요성에 대해  많은 연구자들이 관심을 갖고 있으며 실제 국내외 대학 기관을 비롯한 한국어를 가르치는 기관에서 문학작품을 통한 한국어 교육이 이루어지고 있다. 한국문학 작품 중에서 ?#47924;엇을, 어떻게 가르칠 것인가?#50640; 대해서는 그 연구가 이루어지고 있어 많은 성과가 있으리라 기대된다. ?#47924;엇을 가르칠 것인가?에 있어서는 교수 대상이 누구이며 어떤 배경을 지닌 학습자인가와 연관이 있을 것이다. ?#50612;떻게 가르칠 것인가?#50640; 대한 논의도 매우 의미있는 일이라 생각된다. 그러나 외국어 교육의 관점에서 볼 때 일반적인 문학교수법에 대한 이해와는 달리 목표어의 문학을 어떻게 가르칠 것인가 보다는 문학 텍스트나 학생들의 문학에 대한 흥미를 언어 교육에 어떻게 활용할 것인가가 더 중요하다고 생각된다. 본 연구에서는 학습자들의 문학에 대한 흥미를 한국어 읽기와 쓰기 능력 향상에 활용하는 관점에서의 프로젝트 접근식 수업을 접목시킨 소설 수업을 그 모형으로 제시하고자 한다. 본고에서 소개하고자 하는 모형은 5주간 동안 실시된 프로젝트 수업에 관한 것이다.


Teaching Tense Agreement in Complex Sentences in Korean

Kenneth Kong-On Kim

Defense Language Institute

     In Korean, as in many other languages, the grammatical tense form of the verb in a sentence is closely associated with the time of the occurrence of an event or action. What is interesting about the agreement between the grammatical tense and the time of actual occurrence is that the verb in a subordinate or embedded clause frequently appears in the present (not marked for past tense) despite the fact that the tense of the verb in the main clause is in the past. The following examples illustrate this point:

         (1)  a.   내가 떠나자 그이가 왔다.

He arrived as soon as I *leave.

 b.      내가 *떠났자 그이가 왔다.

He arrived as soon as I left.

(2)  a.   내가 놀리니까 화를 냈다.

          He became angry because I *tease him.

 b.   내가 놀렸으니까 화를 냈다.

                    He became angry because I teased him.

     In both (1a) and (2a), in spite of the fact that the acts of leaving (떠나다) and teasing (놀리다) took place in the past, the verbs in the subordinate clauses are in the present tense. Interestingly, as illustrated by (1b), the use of the past tense form in the subordinate clause (떠났자) makes it ungrammatical. In (2b), on the other hand, the act of teasing, which also occurred in the past, is indeed expressed by the past tense form, and this sentence is grammatical. This kind of inconsistent and seemingly anomalous relationship between the time and the tense of verbs in the subordinate clauses poses a difficult problem to the students learning Korean as a foreign language. It is particularly difficult for native English-speaking students learning Korean, because in English the relationship is quite regular except for the easily identifiable participial constructions and to-infinitive forms.

     This paper is an attempt to identify factors that cause the disparity in agreement between the time of the action and the grammatical tense of the verbs in various kinds of adverbial subordinate clauses. Relevant data will be analyzed in terms of three factors that seem to be involved in this phenomenon: (1) The type of logical relationship between the main and subordinate clauses, (2) the temporal relationship between the verbs in the main and subordinate clauses, and (3) the degree of redundancy in the temporal information associated with the verb in the subordinate clause.

     It is argued that the strong tendency to avoid redundancy in Korean grammar is responsible for the seemingly anomalous relationship between a past action or event and the tense form that does not reflect it. On the basis of the observations and the argument presented in this paper, a set of classroom strategies for teaching this aspect of Korean grammar is recommended.


Heritage Students' Perspectives on Language Classes

Hae-Young Kim

Duke University

      It is estimated that 80% of students of Korean in U.S. universities have a home background in Korean. These students?needs have only recently been recognized as being distinct from those of second/foreign language learners by the Korean language profession. To address their needs, two track systems have been introduced in large Korean programs (UCLA, UC Berkeley, Columbia, and Univ. of Texas). Some of these programs have set up goals and curricula specific to the heritage learners, concentrating on literacy skills or adopting content-based approach.

      Although surveys of Korean heritage learners indicate their relative strengths in receptive skills and weaknesses in productive skills, the extent of a wide variety of their language competency is not really known. Also, the question of whether or not the proposed curriculum and pedagogy meet their goals has not yet been fully answered, not to mention the need to validate the goals themselves.

      This presentation addresses this very question: To what extent do the curriculum and pedagogy intended to serve the heritage students?needs fulfill their mission? In my institution, the intermediate and advanced level Korean courses, with 85%-90% of the students coming from Korean background, are designed to expand the heritage students?linguistic range and to cultivate a deeper understanding of their ancestral culture and the contemporary Korean society. Activities and tasks focus on practicing literacy skills as well as areas of grammar and socio-linguistic rules where errors are persistent. These are embedded in thematic units which range from daily life to places and to history. 

      Students who have taken or are taking the course(s) will be interviewed about their prior experience with the Korean language, expectations that they brought to the course, reflections and views about the course work and its effects on their Korean language use, and so on. From these interviews, I hope to identify the role of the Korean language in their bilingualism and sense of ethnic identity, assess the relevance of the Korean course to their language maintenance and enrichment, and find guidance for curricular development for heritage students.


An Analysis of Particle Errors by Heritage and Non-heritage Learners of Korean

Eun Joo Kim

Ohio State University

     One of the major concerns for most of the Korean language programs in North America has been how to cope with the needs of the two distinctive groups of learners in language classrooms.  They are generally categorized as heritage and non-heritage learners of Korean, and often placed in the same language class, regardless of their language background.  Many of the previous studies (Sohn, 1995; Kim, 2001; Lee, 2000; Richards, 2001; You, 2001) have been concerned with how to teach these mixed groups of learners, while assuming that heritage learners are at an advantage over non-heritage learners in all aspects of language learning.  However, the exact nature of difference in these two groups of learners has not been investigated much, as has been pointed out by some studies (O'Grady et al. 2001; Sohn, 2000).  It is particularly unclear whether or not heritage learners indeed have advantage in learning the intricate grammatical features such as the particles. 

     Particle-related errors have been observed as one of the most frequent types of learner errors in previous studies (Kim, 2002a; Kim, 2002b; Kim, 2000; Lee, 2000).  In the present study, two groups of intermediate learners of Korean enrolled in the same language course were examined on their performance in writings to test if there is any significant difference in particle errors between the two groups. A total of 173 compositions written by 21 intermediate learners of Korean (10 heritage students and 11 non-heritage students) were analyzed to find out how frequent the particle errors were and what types of particle errors occurred.

     The findings of this study showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups of learners in particle errors. Furthermore, both groups of learners made significantly more errors on case particles (i.e., nominative, accusative, and locative case particles) than other types of particles.  For the heritage group, over 70% of the particle errors were found in the usages of case particles.  Also, 67% of the particle errors were case particle errors in the non-heritage group.  Although the overall accuracy on the particle usage did not differ significantly, the two groups of learners did show difference in the errors related to delimiters.  The non-heritage group made more errors on the delimiters such as -nun/un and -to than the heritage learners did.  About 30% of the particle errors by the non-heritage group were on the usage of the topic-contrast particle, -nun/un, while the same type of particle error comprised of less than 19% of the overall particle errors for the heritage group. The results indicated that non-heritage learners had greater difficulty in using discourse-related particles properly than heritage learners.  These findings are also in line with those of Sohn (2000) in which the non-heritage students showed discourse-related errors much more frequently than the non-heritage students.

     In conclusion, the present study shows that heritage learners are not always at an advantage, at least with respect to case particles.  However, it should also be noted that the difference between the heritage and non-heritage learners are still manifested in the discourse-related particle errors.   It is hoped that in future research, the nature of the difference between heritage and non-heritage learners is investigated further in other aspects of language learning.


Kim, E. (2002)a.  Development of writing accuracy through error feedback:  A longitudinal study of L2 writing in Korean,  Journal of Korean Language Education, 13.1, 279-306.

Kim, E.  (2002)b.  Investigating the acquisition of Korean particles by beginning and intermediate learners, Korean Language in America, 7, 165-176.

Kim, H.  (2001).  Issues of heritage learners in Korean language classes, Korean Language in America, 6, 257-274.

Lee, J.  (2000).  Error analysis and corrective measures for intermediate Korean, Korean Language in America, 4, 163-179.

O'Grady, W, Lee, M, & Choo, M.  (2001).  The acquisition of relative clauses by heritage and non-heritage learners of Korean as a second language: A comparative study, Journal of Korean Language Education, 12.2, 283-294.

Richards, K.  (2000).  Teaching students with diverse backgrounds, Korean Language in America, 4, 65-76.

Sohn, S.  (1995).  The design of curriculum for teaching Korean as a heritage language vs. as a foreign language, Korean Language in America, 1, 19-35.

Sohn, S.  (2000).  Writings by heritage and non-heritage learners of Korean at a college-level:  A comparative error analysis, Paper presented at the conference on the Critical Issues in Korean Studies in the Millennium, University of Hawaii.


Accounting for Back-Vowel Under-Differentiation:

An Acoustically-Based Study of English-Speaking Learners of Korean

Ji Eun Kim and David J. Silva

The University of Texas at Arlington

Among the many difficulties encountered by English-speaking students of Korean, one finds a common problem in the production of the back vowels: /a/, /?/span>/, /o/, /u/, /?/span>/. For example, many students have trouble producing distinct versions of /?/span>/ versus /o/, making them both sound like a back rounded [o]. What is perhaps most curious about reported difficulties of this sort is the fact that American English manifests at least four of these vowels in its own phoneme inventory: /a/, /?/span>/, /o/ and /u/. As such, one would expect that the only difficulties English speakers would have in learning Korean would be in the acquisition of on the one “foreign?vowel, namely /?/span>/. In this paper, we attempt to document and explain some of the difficulties that English-speaking students encounter when attempting to acquire these Korean vowels by subjecting learner data to computer-assisted acoustic phonetic analysis.

Any analysis of cross-language interference must take into account the fact that differences between the two language systems (here, Korean and American English) must be considered on two levels. On the one hand, there are categorical phonological differences in the two languages?vowel systems. While Korean includes a high mid-back unrounded vowel /?/span>/, English does not; moreover, the inventory of back vowel phonemes in English includes so-called “lax?versions of /o/ and /u/, namely /?/ and /U/. On the other hand, there are non-categorical (or “gradient? differences in the phonetic manifestations of the vowels that the two languages have in common: even between vowels that can be said to represent the “same?phonemic category (e.g. Korean /a/ and English /a/), the acoustic characteristics differ (to various degrees). What, then, are the relative contributions of categorical phonological and non-categorical phonetic differences in an analysis of the potential L1 interference manifested by English-speaking students of Korean?

In an attempt to answer this question, we conducted a production study using data collected from five (5) students enrolled in a Beginning Korean course at a local community college.  To elicit the production of the Korean vowels, subjects were asked to read a series of index cards upon which were printed brief Korean sentences each containing a word with the target vowel.  The vowels investigated were Korean vowels /a/, /?/span>/, /o/,  /u/, and /?/span>/; each vowel appeared in two contexts, (V) and h(V).  All words were embedded in the carrier sentence: 이건 _____라고 합니다 iken _____ lako hapnita ‘This is called _____.?nbsp; The data were digitized and then analyzed by measuring the values of the first and second formants (F1 and F2) at the center of each vowel.

Results indicate that native English speakers under-differentiate Korean vowels. For example, subjects failed to distinguish between at least one of the following pairs: either /o / and /?/span> /,  /o / and /u /, or /u / and /?/span>/. From these data we have determined that the subjects show a reduction of vowel categories in that they produce only three (3) or four (4) mid-back vowel types while native Korean speakers routinely produce all five (5).  When we compared our acoustic data with comparative English-Korean data published by Yang (1996), we found that our subjects tended to produce vowels fell between English and Korean values. We conclude that native English speakers have difficulty making native-like Korean vowel distinctions due to L1 (English) interference; in such case, they simplify and try to provide maximal differentiation but are constrained by L1 behaviors.

This study concludes with suggestions of a pedagogical nature, suggestions that may be useful both to Korean learners and Korean instructors for improving the Korean-language fluency.


Yang. B. (1996).  A Comparative Study of American English and Korean Vowels Produced by Male and Female Speakers.  Journal of Phonetics, 24, 245-261.


   On the Romanization of Korean

(국어의 로마자 표기법의 문제점과「Yale표기」의 활용방안)

Jin-Kyu Kim

Kong-Ju University

      The Romanization of the Korean alphabet is very important internationally. Since American missionaries, Baird, and Hulburt used Romanization of Korean Sound 1895 at the end of the 19 century, many discussions and revisions have come out in the last 100 years. The main themes of the discussion have centered on the Romanization of the phonemic symbols, pronunciation, voiced, unvoiced consonants, strong accent, glottalized sounds, and vowels such as 'ㅓ' or 'ㅡ' in the Korean language.  The currently used edition, the 2000 Romanization of Korean, puts forth a method that is convenient because it emphasizes the actual pronunciations and does not rely on assisting symbols. However, a solution to the thorny problem of transcribing voiceless sounds. diphthongs, and proper nouns has yet to be found, especially because the “permitted?use of Korean-oriented, Romanized versions in research papers is inconsistent and causes much confusion.

      Romanization of Korean is useful in transcribing the names of persons, places and vocabulary in daily use, whereas a phonemic transcription will be better suited for research or educational purposes.  Also, Romanization of Korean is not suitable for analytically transcribed textbooks and journals that study Korean as a foreign language. For these purposes, modifying the transcription method to the Yale system would be a good alternative.  Although two different ways of Romanizing Korean is not desirable, the use of the Yale system will help minimize frequent revision, enhance practical utility and aid educational efficiency.


Investigation of Manner Contrast of Korean Stops in Inter-vocalic and Word-final positions

Mi-Ran Cho Kim and Jeongyi Lee

University of Georgia

Andrew Lotto

Washington State University

      Korean has nine stops that are phonemically voiceless.  They occur in three different places of articulation, i.e. bilabial, alveolar, velar, and contrast in the degree of aspiration and/or tension of the glottis, which result in three different manners. The three manners of Korean stops are often referred to as heavily aspirated, slightly aspirated, and unaspirated (Kim, 1967, 1970). They are also referred to as aspirated, lax (lenis), and tense (fortis) by other phoneticians (Jun, 1996; Cho, Jun & Ladefoged, 2002). The present study examines the acoustic correlates of the manner contrast of Korean stops. 

     Phonemically, all nine Korean stops occur word-initially and inter-vocalically.  In word-final position, the aspirated stops, the lax stops, and the velar tense stop occur in modern Korean.  Previous findings suggest that the three different manners of Korean stops are distinctive on several acoustic measures in word-initial position.  They differ significantly in terms of closure duration, voice onset time and the fundamental frequency of the following vowel.  In inter-vocalic position, they occur either in the coda position of the first syllable (VC.V) or in the onset position of the second syllable (V.CV).  Phonetically, however, both sequences are often pronounced as V.CV due to the resyllabification process.  While both aspirated and tense stops remain as voiceless, the lax stops become voiced between two vowels.  All three manners are neutralized to the homorganic lax stops and are often unreleased in word-final position.

      The present study provides acoustic measurements of the Korean stops in inter-vocalic and word-final position.  For inter-vocalic stops, closure duration and Voice Onset Time (VOT) and the fundamental frequency of the following vowel are measured.  For word-final stops, the duration of the preceding vowel is measured.  The measurements obtained from this experiment are compared to those from the previous experiment on word-initial Korean stops.  The findings will provide better understanding of the allophonic variations of Korean stops and the neutralization process of Korean stops.


하이퍼텍스트(Hypertext) 활용한 한국어 쓰기 교육에 대한 연구

홈페이지를 중심으로



정보화 시대의 도래는 인간 삶의 양식과 사고 방식에 엄청난 변화를 초래하고 있다. 특별히 컴퓨터 기술의 발달은 우리 삶의 모든 면에 깊숙이 파고 들어 매일의 일상에서 컴퓨터가 없이는 업무를 제대로 수행하기 어렵고, 이메일이나 메신저 등을 통한 새롭고도 신속한 의사소통이 삶의 일부가 되어가고 있다. 그런데 이러한 새로운 의사소통 양식의 특성은 대부분의 정보와 문서가 하이퍼텍스트 형식을 띤다는 것이다. 하이퍼텍스트는 비선형성, 상호작용성, 개방성, 무경계성을 특징으로 하며, 기존 인쇄물 중심의 의사소통에 비해서 인간의 여러 감각을 사용한 의사소통이 가능하다는 것이 특징이자 장점이다.

우리의 삶이 새로운 의사소통 양식을 사용하고 받아들이고 있다면 한국어 교육에서도 이러한 변화에 민감히 반응해야 하며 이를 교육적 측면에서 적극적으로 수용해야 한다. 왜냐하면 요즘의 외국어 교육이 실생활 중심, 사용 중심, 학습자 중심을 지향하는데, 하이퍼텍스트는 특성상 기존 인쇄물보다 실제적이며 학습자 중심적인 성격이 더욱 강하기 때문이다.

이에 연구에서는 하이퍼텍스트 하이퍼미디어에 대한 개념과 특성에 대해 살펴보고 하이퍼미디어 환경에서의 한국어 교육이 기존 인쇄물 중심의 의사소통적 접근법보다 좀더 학습자 중심, 과제중심, 실제성 중심을 지향한다는 것을 알아본다. 아울러 일반 작문과 하이퍼텍스트 작문의 특성을 비교해 보고, 하이퍼텍스트를 활용한 한국어 쓰기 교육에 대한 구체적인 방안을 제시한다.


Typing in Language Classes?

Kijoo Ko

UC Berkeley

     Foreign language teachers keep searching for better ways to teach languages. How do we teach the language more effectively, making the learning a fun activity? How do we keep the students engaged in learning the language? What can we use in language teaching other than the board and paper?  Especially in this technology era, can we use computers or any other new technology that will enhance language learning?

     Using the Internet, e-mails, chatting, or CALL can be listed as possibilities. In fact, an increasing number of foreign language teachers use such methods by incorporating them into their curricula. Unlike Indo-European languages, however, the use of technology-driven methods in teaching or learning Korean requires knowing how to type in Korean.

     Considering limited facilities, class time, and practicality, teachers may wonder if it is really worth including typing in the regular curriculum.  In this paper, I will present several activities that require typing.  Then, some studies will be presented to show how the typing skill has contributed to the improvement of students?linguistic skills.  The result of the questionnaires and its implications will also be discussed. 


Introduction to KoreanPhonics: Software for Learning Korean through Reading

Eun-Hee Koo

La Sierra University

          There is an abundance of research about learning foreign languages through reading. Even in the communicative approach, students improve their vocabulary through reading. Because there are limitations on using the number of vocabulary words in conversations, many students in the communicative approach environment have difficulty improving their language skills starting at the intermediate level.

          The KoreanPhonics program, which is developed by a self-study Korean language learning program, includes visual and audio materials. This program is expected to be published at the end of May, 2003. It contains 10 compact discs that have over 100 stories, which are mostly from Korean elementary school textbooks in Korea. The structure of the program is as follow: 1. Introduction to Hangul. 2. Exercises in writing and reading Hangul. 3. Presentation of short stories with pictures. 4. Practice questions for reading comprehension, teaching grammar and writing an essay. This shows the meaning of each word when the students click them. The program is expected to be used for a computer lab course since the students can print out what they study.

          In this presentation, the structure, purpose, and expected effects of the program will be discussed. Also, there will be a demonstration of the program. 


The Standards Based on Korean Language Instruction in New York City Public High Schools

Hyunjoo Kwon

Resource Specialist

Asian Language Bilingual Education

Technical Assistance Center/Division of English Language Learners

Department of Education of the City of New York

         Teaching and learning of languages other than English in the United States can be characterized by confusion over the definition of terms such as foreign language, heritage language, native language, and second language. However, the common thread among such language programs is that their goals are to achieve the highest level of bi-literacy among students.

         Bilingual education, a by-product of the Civil Rights movement in the 60’s, has played a crucial role in maintaining the Korean native language in public schools in New York City for the last two decades.  Currently, six high schools offer the mandated Korean language classes, and one specialized high school offers Korean as an elective. These Korean language programs are incorporated into the foreign language curriculum with the support of the administrations at Manhattan High School and Queens High School. 

Korean Native Language Program


         The transitional bilingual program is designed to help English language learners (Limited English Proficient Students) acquire English language proficiency while they continue to learn the subject areas appropriate to their age and grade levels in their native language.  The program is designed to provide a transition from instruction in ESL and the native language to instruction conducted only in English.  Students are allowed to opt-into bilingual programs to improve their Korean language skills.


        The schools offer six to eight terms of Korean NLA instruction.  The courses are designed for Korean native speakers, and the instruction in NLA is offered on a daily basis (45 minutes).  The curriculum of the NLA instruction is parallel to that of English instruction.  The Korean NLA program focuses on strengthening Korean students with good listening and speaking skills, and reading and writing skills. The study of Korean history, culture and literature is carried out by comparing/contrasting with that of the U.S.  The study of the native culture is used as a springboard to introduce students to their new culture, and to promote respect for cultural diversity.

        Under the No Child Left Behind Act that demands high accountability from schools, the NLA instruction follows a curriculum guide which is based on native language standards. The standards are in alignment with English language arts standards which are being enforced in New York State. The NLA instruction has proved successful in assisting students to pass the rigorous NYS Regents English Comprehensive examinations which are offered at the completion of English language arts requirements in high school.

        The culminating event of the native language instruction is the Comprehensive Korean Native Language Examination which is given at the end of the 6th term of Korean language instruction. By passing the Native Language Comprehensive Examination, the students are given the opportunity to receive an honor diploma at graduation. In New York State, the student needs to pass several Regents Comprehensive Exams in order to be granted an honor diploma, and Foreign Language Regents is one of the required subject tests.

Purpose of this presentation

        The purpose of this presentation is to discuss (a) the status of Korean native language programs in NYC public schools, (b) the challenge of expanding the programs to be more inclusive to satisfy the social and linguistic needs of Korean students, and (c) what strategies are being used to help students succeed in their schooling. 

        The presentation includes an introduction to the Korean language programs in NYC, the Korean Native Language Standards, Native Language Arts Resource Guides, and the Korean Comprehensive examination as an assessment tool for the acquisition of Korean language skills.


The Effectiveness of Listening Comprehension Assignments Using Web-based “Chalk?/span>

Jung Hyuck Lee

University of Chicago

This paper aims to introduce the Korean “Chalk?project, an original web-based supplement to the widely used textbook, Integrated Korean: Beginning 1 & 2, and to show how effective the listening comprehension part in “Chalk?is for elementary-level Korean students.  The “Chalk?project was designed for the first-year Korean classes at the University of Chicago.  The elementary classes include both Korean-heritage students and non-heritage students who have had no previous exposure to Korean.  Thus, starting with the Korean alphabet, this course mainly emphasizes correct pronunciation, speaking and listening comprehension.  While teaching this course, I had noticed that many students, especially non-heritage students, had difficulty with listening comprehension as well as with pronouncing certain sounds and phrases.  A number of students had high scores on written quizzes and exams but not on listening comprehension quizzes such as dictation.  This is the reason why I designed and implemented a listening comprehension section in “Chalk?for the students, especially true beginners, who need to have daily practice in listening comprehension.

             Since the fall of 2002, students have been assigned “Chalk?program homework of listening comprehension which covers the grammar points, vocabulary words and expressions presented in each lecture session.  We have three lectures on grammar and two TA sessions for drill-practice per lesson in the first-year Korean class at the University of Chicago.  In “Chalk,?there are three listening comprehension quizzes that match the instructor’s three lectures.  The “Chalk?quizzes are then assigned as homework for each lecture day.  Each “Chalk?quiz is 1-page long and varies in terms of the format of the listening practice.  The students are asked to give their own answers to questions based on what they hear through dictation and various dialogues in Korean.  As a result, the program provides a review of the grammar points and vocabulary from class lectures by means of listening comprehension practice.

The “Chalk?project has several advantages.  One of them is that students can easily have access to the web-based “Chalk?( at their apartment, dormitory or on campus.  Another is that the instructor can check how much time students are actually spending on listening practices (i.e., exact date, exact time and time duration). 

I have strong confidence in the effectiveness of this listening comprehension assignment judging from our staff self-evaluations and the positive feedback from students.  In order to demonstrate this effectiveness I would like to design an experiment to compare the progress of students of Winter 2002 who did not use “Chalk?with students of Winter 2003 who did use “Chalk?  Their final exam scores from these two winter quarters and a ratio of the listening comprehension section scores of the exam will be compared by means of T-test. (The Winter quarter 2003 will end mid-March.)  

The first year of a foreign language course is very important in helping students acquire the entirely new sounds of the target language which are then built upon for the rest of the study of the language.  Thus it is necessary to focus on more input through listening materials in order to get better output, not to mention understanding the target language completely.  I believe that this important task will be greatly facilitated by using the web-based “Chalk?


Understanding Learner Characteristics of University-level Korean Language Students

Jin Sook Lee

Rutgers University

      As the nation faces a critical shortage of competent speakers of diverse foreign languages to contribute to advancements in the business, political, societal, and private sectors (Brecht & Rivers, 2000), there is a greater need to review the current status of the curricula and instruction being used in foreign language courses. However, before we can proceed to develop more effective and appropriate curricula and pedagogical techniques, we need to better understand who the students are in the courses, why they are enrolled, and what their expectations are.  This study focuses on identifying and understanding the goals, motivations, attitudes, and needs of learners of Korean at the university level. 

      We cannot begin a discourse about effective pedagogy without addressing the issue of differences between heritage and non-heritage language learners in the foreign language education context. Rather than imposing the traditional definition of a heritage learner, that is, “a student who is raised in a home where a non-English language is spoken, who speaks or merely understands the heritage language and who to some degree is bilingual in English and the heritage language?(Vald?, 2000, p.1), this study chooses to follow learners?own self-identify as heritage or non-heritage learners, which I submit will allow us to better understand their perspectives on the “criteria?that make one a heritage learner or not . Through the identification of such characteristics, a more refined definition of a heritage language learner can be developed.

      112 learners of Korean across proficiency levels were surveyed on a university campus. A preliminary analysis of the data shows that many learners, who are traditionally labeled as heritage learners, do not consider themselves as heritage language learners.  Among the students, the term “heritage language learner?seems to carry an expectation of already having achieved a certain level of cultural and linguistic competency. And certain roles are assigned to such students in the classroom.   For example, the students view the heritage language learners to be the cultural and language “brokers?between the teacher and the non-heritage learners or as models of the native culture and pronunciation.  The data also show that one of the greatest concerns for the students of Korean descent in learning Korean is their constant fear of not being able to become a proficient heritage language learner.  What is becoming apparent is that the students of Korean ethnicity are not only learning the language and culture of their heritage, but they are also in the process of retrieving and reforming their cultural identity through a language that they have ignored, or perhaps even suppressed, as dominant English speakers.  This study will also include the language learning experience, Korean language schools, language use patterns, motivations, goals, and the attitudes toward the language and culture of the informants, and examine how such factors affect one another.

      Some of the findings from other language learner groups, such as Chinese, Arabic, Hebrew, and Russian will also be presented..  By comparing learner profiles for the different language groups, it will be beneficial to see in what ways curricula and pedagogical issues might overlap or intersect in allowing a productive exchange of effective techniques and curricula.  Implications and recommendations for the improvement of language instruction will be discussed.


Brecht, R.D. & Rivers, W. P. (2000). Language and national security in the 21st century: The role of Title VI/Fulbright-Hays in

        supporting national language capacity.   Dubuque, IA: Kendall, Hunt.

Vald?, G. (2000). Spanish for Native Speakers. Vol. 1. AATSP. Professional Development Series Handbook for Teachers K-16. NY,

        NY: Harbourt College Publishers.


Subject Case Drop vs. Object Case Drop in L2 Korean

Mijung Lee

University of Hawaii

     The present study investigates the accessibility of the Empty Category Principle (ECP) in L2 acquisition by testing L2 learners?knowledge on the contrast between subject case drop and object case drop. The contrast, which is observed in colloquial Korean (and Japanese), is that the accusative marker ?l)ul can be freely omitted while the nominative case marker –i/-ka cannot (Kageyama 1993, Yoo, Kayama, Mazzotta & White 2001). In the case of object case drop, the null accusative case position is properly governed by the verb, complying with the ECP, which states that nonpronominal empty categories must be properly governed (Fukuda 1993). However, no proper governor is available for the null nominative case position since the INFL is not a lexical head.

     Previous studies on subject/object case drop, which were mainly done on Japanese, have yielded mixed results, some (Kanno 1996, 1998) with the non-native speakers who preferred object case drop to subject case drop and others (Kellerman and Yoshioka 1999) with those who were not able to detect the asymmetry. Based on the results of her studies, Kanno (1996, 1998) has argued that L2 learners have the knowledge of the ECP, and that UG is fully accessible to them. On the other hand, failing to replicate the findings of Kanno’s (1998) study, Kellerman and Yoshioka (1999) have speculated that previous exposure to naturalistic speech containing case drop, not the ECP, may play a role in the acquisition of the case drop asymmetry.

     The experiment was conducted with two groups of participants: 10 English-speaking learners who were about to complete a year and a quarter-long Korean intensive course and 7 native speakers of Korean. Participants were asked to give their acceptability judgment on sentences containing either subject case drop or object case drop on a five-point scale. The test sentences were simple transitive-based interrogatives with both arguments (subject and object) present and they were presented with distractors.

     The overall results showed that the non-native participants in the present study failed to detect the contrast between subject case drop and object case drop. Unlike the control group who strongly accepted object case drop and rejected subject case drop, they rated subject case drop slightly higher than object case drop, suggesting that UG may not be as actively operative as it is claimed to be in L2 acquisition. An examination of individual scores further confirms this in that more than half of the experimental group showed no preference for object case drop at all. The present study provides support for the findings of Kellerman and Yoshioka’s (1999) study that addresses the role of input that is needed to activate the dormant knowledge of the ECP. However, the results of the present study raise another question of how much is needed to do so, given that the non-native participants in the present study were more advanced and possibly had more exposure to case drop than those in the Kellerman and Yoshioka’s (1999) study.


Fukuda, M. 1993. Head government and case marker drop in Japanese. Linguistic Inquiry 24: 168-172.

Kageyama, T. 1993. Bunpoo to gokeisei. Tokyo, Japan: Hitsujishoboo.

Kanno, K. 1996. The status of a nonparameterized principle in the L2 initial state. Language Acquisition 5: 317-332.

Kanno, K. 1998. Consistency and variation in second language acquisition. Second Language Research 14: 376-388.

Kellerman E. & K. Yoshioka. 1999. Inter- and intra-population consistency: a comment on Kanno (1998). Second Language Research 

     15: 101-109.

Yoo, M., Y. Kayama, M. Mazzotta & L. White. 2001. Case drop in L2 Japanese. In Proceeding of the 25th Annual Boston University 

     Conference on Language Development (pp. 825-834). Somerville, MA: Casacadilla Press.


Critical Period Hypothesis Revisited: Neurobiological Explanation

Namhee Lee


      Critical period hypothesis has been one of the most intensely discussed conundrums that have baffled researchers of SLA for a long time. Different studies have presented different ages to be critical periods (Johnson and Newport, 1989, 1991; Patkowski, 1980). Even some studies have demonstrated that adults learn better than children (Snow and Hoefnagle-Hohle, 1978). Such conflict led Freeman and Long (1993) to confess that we really don't know much about this problem. However, these seemingly conflicting results of diverse researches should not discourage us from trying to grapple this theoretically critical question, because this question is too important (for our understanding how we learn a foreign/second as well as first language) to be dismissed or abandoned.

      The target paper will explain, based on neurobiological perspective, why there is a strong correlation between age factor and learning ability factor, and it will also show that the seemingly conflicting results of diverse research are not really conflicting at all when we understand how different mechanisms of brain subtend diverse kinds of learning. When the target paper addresses the correlation, three neurophysilogical phenomena will be described: decrease of dendritic arborization, late appearance of the hippocampus in ontogeny of individuals, and decrease of dopamine production. Together with information on the Basal Ganglia loops, the three phenomena will clarify the baffling issues regarding critical period hypothesis to a great extend.


Age Differences in Auditory Discrimination and Pronunciation of Korean Phonemes

Steven K. Lee, Ph.D.

California State University, Dominguez Hills

Purpose of the Study

This study examined the issue of age differences in the development of auditory discrimination and pronunciation of Korean phonemes from an acoustic phonetic perspective.  That is, the study attempted to respond to the question: (a) Is there age difference in perception and articulation of Korean phonemes? and (b) Is there a relationship between the two measures—the ability to discriminate and the ability to produce Korean sounds?


A group of 40 subjects, all of whom were native American English speakers, in two age groups (elementary level and college level) participated in the study.  The randomly selected subjects were asked to listen to a recording of 27 syllables comprising distinctive consonantal stops in Korean, varying in voice, tension, and aspiration.  After listening to each syllable, subjects were asked to first articulate the model pronunciation, and then to select the identical syllable among the three choices provided.  Three native Korean speakers—all graduate students of linguistics specially trained in phonology—evaluated the data.


Statistical tests at the alpha level of .05 were used to compare the vector of means of the two groups?auditory discrimination and pronunciation scores.  Results from t-test analyses revealed that there were no significant differences between the two groups in auditory discrimination (t=1.49) and oral production skills (t=.31).  A Pearson product-moment correlation examining the possibility of a relationship between auditory discrimination and pronunciation skills indicated that there was a weak correlation for the two measures for the younger subjects (r=.37) but a strong correlation (r=.60) for the college-aged subjects.


The results from this study seem to indicate that children possess no distinct advantage over adults on measures of auditory discrimination and oral production skills of Korean phonemes, and that how a word is pronounced may not necessarily be related to how the sounds are perceived, at least during the initial stage of developing Korean phonology, for younger learners.  For older (college-aged) learners, however, accurate articulation of Korean phonemes may be related to how they perceive sounds.  Thus, it is recommended that longer listening comprehension or silent period be provided for college students vis-?vis elementary-aged students of Korean to develop facility for pre-production or speech emergence.


On Korean Romanization   

 Sang-il Lee

Defense Language Institute, Foreign Language Center 

    So many attempts have been made to render the Korean alphabet in Roman letters.  Some of these were done by non-Koreans and some by Koreans.  Each attempt had a purpose, and some were accepted well and used widely, while others had their limited acceptance and usage.  The purpose of this paper is to survey some systems, to examine the correspondence between the Korean alphabet and Roman letters in each system, and to discuss the relationship between the Korean alphabet and Romanization systems as a whole. 


Understanding the Common European Framework and Its Implications for the Teaching of Korean as an International Language

Young Shik Lee


      Many people in Europe are being encouraged to learn several other languages after their mother tongue, with additional languages being learned throughout adulthood as part of life-long endeavor. As a result of over three decades?research by a number of leading applied linguists and pedagogical specialists from 41 member states of the Council of Europe, the Common European Framework (CEF) of Reference for Languages has been established (Council of Europe, 2001). The CEF has provided curriculum planners and language assessment agencies with a focus for the setting of language learning objectives through the application of competency-based systems and the maintenance of standards through appropriate assessment procedures. In an attempt to understand what the CEF is, I outline what its key concepts are and how it is organized. I will also address what kind of implications it will have for the teaching of Korean as an international language, in Asia and in the world.


Collocation and the Acquisition of Korean

Byung-Joon Lim

Defense Language Institute

     In every language there are items that co-occur with high frequency, others that co-occur when need arises, and still others whose co-occurrence seems impossible. Those that regularly occur together are often called collocations. Since collocation is the way words combine with other words in predictable ways, knowing strong and frequent collocations in Korean is essential for the mastery of the Korean language.

     Collocation is, however, the single biggest problem area for foreign learners of Korean, and consequently, for the teachers of Korean as well. An American learner of Korean as a foreign language can hardly expect that collocations will have the same meaning cross-culturally. Furthermore, there are items which are semantically compatible but are not associated habitually enough to be considered collocations by native speakers of Korean. As a result, ?/font>밥을 만들어요? or ?/font>뼈가 깨졌어요? are often incorrectly used when ?/font>밥을 지어요? and ?/font>뼈가 부러졌어요? are the correct forms.

     This paper addresses some general issues of collocations in Korean, including the classification and characteristics of Korean collocations, how to teach collocations more effectively, and how much we should teach.

     Using various techniques of computational linguistics and the Internet resources, the treatment of collocations in some selected Korean dictionaries and textbooks will also be explored. At the same time, this paper will try to provide practical ways of introducing collocations to students in formal classroom settings.


Using the Hot Potatoes Program for Improvement of Grammar

Bo Y. Park

Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center

            This presentation is to demonstrate how to motivate the Korean language students to learn Korean grammar with the Hot Potatoes program. The selected grammar patterns for this presentation are used to express wearing various objects, and wanting and not wanting to wear those objects.

          The students will have four exercises using the Hot Potatoes software program. The first one is a matching exercise, made by JMatch potato, for identifying the names of things. The students are supposed to match the pictures of a sweater, a hat, a watch, a neckerchief, gloves, and socks with Korean words for each item. After that, the students will have another matching exercise, also made by JMatch potato. They are supposed to match the above items written in Korean with different Korean verb infinitive forms for wearing. If they mismatch some items, they have to try pressing the “check?button until they successfully match all items correctly.

            Next, the students will write Korean sentences that say, “I am wearing a sweater,?“I am wearing a hat,?“I am wearing a watch,?“I am wearing a neckerchief,? “I am wearing gloves,?and “I am wearing socks.?The students will have to make two sentences for each English sentence because Korean has two ways of expressing that one is wearing the above-mentioned items ?one is using the progressive tense, and the other is using the past tense. Then, the students will have the third exercise for confirmation of whether or not they have written correct sentences. The exercise is made by JQuiz potato for short-answer exercises. The students are supposed to complete two half-finished sentences for each above item ?one is a present progressive sentence, and the other is a past tense sentence. The students can check their answers by using the “check?button. They have to continue until they write all the answers correctly.

            After the confirmation, the students will make sentences that have the meanings of presently wanting to wear and not wanting to wear the above-stated items for the first person. The students will have the last exercise to confirm that they have written sentences correctly. The exercise was also made by JQuiz potato. They are supposed to fill in the blanks for the parts of “want to wear?and “not to want to wear.?Those who made mistakes should try until they write each sentence correctly. The students can confirm their answers using the “check?button.

            There are potential problems related to these activities on both the teacher’s and the students?side. The teacher’s problem is that it takes time for them to be familiar with the operation of the Hot Potatoes program and to prepare the exercises. But it is worthwhile to learn it and to prepare such exercises for students. The students?problem is the gap between the students with high linguistic ability and those with low linguistic ability. This problem can be tackled by asking the former to do some other activities similar to the ones they already finished.

            This presentation can make contributions to the teaching of Korean as follows. First, it will show a way to teach grammar away from the traditional method by computers while keeping the students interested in learning Korean. Second, by so doing, it can stimulate the teachers to create new ideas to teach Korean.


The Remedy for the Grammatical Errors Related to Two Clausal Connectives

Jihyun Park and Roger G.P. Hong

University of Southern California

     The clausal suffixes ko and (e)se ‘and then?that function as ‘sequence?markers are two of the most frequently used connectives in Korean. These connectives are usually introduced at the beginning level of Korean. Although the rules related to their use are relatively simple, learners of Korean often make errors. However, the fundamental cause of the mistakes remains unclear.

     In fact, it has been known that even the learners who have studied Korean for a number of years often make the same mistakes as beginners in using these suffixes. Also, the errors often become fossilized. Hence, the teachers of Korean find it difficult to understand why they are used incorrectly. In other words, teaching effectively how to make the correct choice between two connective suffixes seems to be an elusive goal.

     This study points out the problems by examining the learners?errors in written Korean, and will present a critical analysis of the problems. The errors examined are based on samples of learners?inter-language collected longitudinally through free-style compositions. By examining the errors, our study attempts to analyze the causes of the same mistakes. And as a possible remedy, especially at the beginning stages of learning, we suggest a method called “consciousness raising.?nbsp;


Ronal P.Leow. 2000. A study of the role of awareness in foreign language behavior. Second Language Acquisition research. Cambridge University Press, P. 557-584

Rod Ellis. 1995. Interpretation tasks for grammar teaching. TESOL Quarterly, P. 87-105

_______. 1997. SLA and Language Pedagogy. Second Language Acquisition research. 
             Cambridge University Press, P. 69-92


Exploring the Possibilities of Corpus Linguistics for Korean Teaching and Learning

Siwon Park

University of Hawai’i at Manoa

Using a large collection of language data (written or spoken language), corpus linguistics studies have been carried out by researchers in order mainly to investigate the descriptive nature of a language.  However, although not yet popularized, researchers in various institutions have started exploring the possibilities of corpus linguistics for pedagogic purposes.  For instance, currently, researchers at the National Foreign Language Resource Center (NFLRC) at the University of Hawai`i have undertaken an initiative project for such purposes, and have examined how corpus linguistics can be best utilized especially for Korean teaching and learning.  

This paper is intended to provide the reader with: 1. General introduction to corpus linguistics and its pedagogic use for Korean teaching and learning, and 2. Information as to the available resources of Korean corpora and computerized/web-based corpus analysis programs.  In the paper, the author first briefs the development, as well as the current status of corpus linguistics in general, and extends the discussion to the advances that have been accomplished with the corpus linguistics in Korean.  Following the introductory portion, the paper addresses what advantages corpus linguistics could bear for Korean teaching and learning specifically through the activities in and outside the classroom.  Teachers may prefer different approaches in adopting/adapting corpus linguistics for their teaching, taking into account various factors, such as learner’s proficiency, class contents, learning purposes, types of language skills being introduced, etc.  Such factors will be examined in order to identify ways for corpus linguistics to best serve the goals of more effective teaching and higher learning outcomes.  Also, specific considerations will be given to the teaching of language components such as vocabulary, grammar, and pragmatics.  Finally, two sample in-class practices using corpora and corpus analysis programs will be presented in order to respond to the case in which the reader needs some example practices to devise their own classroom practices.


Needs Analysis of the Korean Community (Language/Culture) Schools in Hawai`i

S. Park, J. Lee, H. Kim, H. Joo, and D. J. Lee

University of Hawai`i at Manoa

A research team from the Korean Program at the University of Hawai`i (UH) has conducted a needs analysis with the Korean community language/cultural schools in Hawai`i.  Four major Korean schools including their students, teachers, parents, and administrators participated in this study.  Since, for a complete needs analysis, access to various methods as well as to sources is crucial, data were obtained using a multi-source and multi-method approach.  That is, for the source, not only the students, but also, their teachers, parents, future employers (i.e., domain experts), local communities joined in the current project, and target language use situations including those in Korea and in the U.S. were considered in the analysis.  As for the method, multiple sampling procedures were taken including surveys, interviews, and observations.  The initial survey instrument was carefully prepared using a piloting procedure with stratified random samples.  The surveys, participant observations, unstructured interviews etc., were performed across all of the different interest groups around the community schools. 

Based on the analyses of the data collected, the current paper presents the identified needs that the respective interest groups perceive of the Korean community schools in Hawai`i.  Also, possible gaps are identified of the perceived needs between such groups.  Especially, issues are addressed as to how these schools have met the needs perceived and expressed by the participants.  As the final goal of the current study, suggestions are made for the schools on how to respond appropriately to the needs when  they are found to not have been met.  In addition, various school aspects such as curriculum, teaching and learning materials, testing, learner motivation, etc., are examined in detail and the accounts for them are presented as to how they were perceived and addressed by the participants and schools.  Finally, the paper lists the possible contributions of this project for not only the Korean community schools in other districts, but also for higher educational institutions for Koreans in the U.S.  This project can provide a research paradigm of needs analysis for the Korean community schools in other regions in the U.S.  Schools from other regions may either want to adopt the results of the current project as it is or want to initiate their own needs analysis using the results and the framework of the current project.  Indeed, these processes will bring out a good common matrix that both contain the commonalities and differences of the Korean schools in the U.S., in terms of their programs. 


An Inspirational Teacher of Korean Poetics

Mark Peterson

Brigham Young University

      Recently we had a visiting scholar, Prof. An Seong-su from Cheju University, who was an inspirational teacher of Korean poetics; he gave me some interesting ideas that I have worked into a teaching block on poetry.
      In the process, I teach more than poetry.  There is an incredible about of vocabulary, practical usage, syntax, and analysis of Korean non-poetic language in addition to the poetry itself.
      The method involves using the written outline our visiting scholar generated for the class.  The outline accomplishes the following:

1.  Presents the poem, leaving out a key word, that the class is asked to supply, after learning a little about the poem.  The key word may be the title, or it may be a word or phrase in the poem itself.
2.  Advise the students that they will be memorizing the poem for recitation by the end of the first class period.
3.  Go over the handout that explains some of the features of the poem, such as the layers of meaning, the symbolism, poetic expressions.
4.  Talk about the poem to become more familiar with it; talk about the layers of meaning and possible personal interpretations.
5.  Internalize the poem.  Apply its concepts to individual personalities and circumstances.  -- feel the poem.
6.  Perform.  Poetry, by definition is performance.  Recite it together; recite it individually.
7.  Second, third and fourth day, translate the handout, line by line, concept by concept and prepare a perfect translation of the handout (three or four pages long).
8.  Submit the final translation of the poem and the translation of the handout.

      I've had interesting success with this approach and would be happy to share it with AATK.  I will show examples of the students work to show the results of this teaching set, and to show that the variations in translations are evidence that translation is an art,
not a mechanical skill.


The Use of Asynchronous CMC in a Beginning Korean Class

Young-sook Shim

University of Texas, Austin

The development of networked-computers has drawn considerable attention in SLA as it relates to communicative language teaching because this technology mediates various types of interpersonal interaction. Because of its ability to generate high levels of interactivity, networked-computers have been believed to offer ample opportunities to acquire and practice communicative competence through interaction.            

The present study describes the results of a pilot study to examine how university KFL students in a beginning Korean class interact with one another as well as with the teacher in asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC). Three different types of tasks for asynchronous CMC are designed to provide the students with opportunities to engage in active interaction. The students can access the network outside the classroom at their own convenience, in terms of time and place, to accomplish the tasks. They are given approximately a week to complete each task. After each task is completed, a post-grammar lesson is created based on grammatical errors in students?writing. The students also answer a questionnaire asking their experience of and attitudes towards using asynchronous CMC and having post-grammar lessons.

This study is in progress, therefore conclusive remarks can be hardly made at this point. Nevertheless, data collected so far reveal that asynchronous CMC facilitates student interactions and opens up other options in terms of interactive behaviors, which did not occur often in face-to-face communication in the classroom. The results will be illustrated within the framework of Interaction Hypothesis in SLA. Based on the results, potential benefits and constraints of using asynchronous CMC for beginning KFL learners will be discussed. Also, suggestions will be offered with respect to how this type of activity could be more effectively utilized to promote student interaction, which is deemed critical to language learning.


Development and Implementation of Student Portfolios to Assess Language Development

(Workshop Presentation)

Hyekyung Sung

Stanford University

This workshop will present strategies used to develop and implement student portfolios for Korean language classes to assess students?language development.  Essential elements of language portfolios including the portfolios?purposes and audiences, major characteristics, and benefits will be discussed.  The presentation will focus on teacher-student cooperation in developing a meaningful portfolio that demonstrates the learner’s growth in the four language skill areas (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) as well as in cultural awareness.  Portfolio development process will be presented step by step with sample student portfolios.  Analytic rubric for portfolio assessment will be also presented.  Korean language classroom instructors will learn detailed steps for development and implementation of student portfolios.  Written guidelines for student portfolios will be provided with special attention to ways of monitoring students?oral language proficiency development.

Topics to be covered:

Introduction to portfolio assessment

New paradigms of assessment

Role of portfolios in language classes

Group exploration of actual student portfolio samples

Development and implementation of portfolios in Korean classes

Define purposes and audiences of the portfolio

Essential elements and characteristics of language portfolio

Development of student language portfolios from planning to implementation with step-by-step guidelines

Review of analytic rubric for portfolio assessment

Discussion and Q & A


The Motivational Orientation of Korean Learners and Ethnic Identity Development of Heritage Learners

Jean Sook Ryu Yang

Defense Language Institute



This paper reports the motivational orientation (reasons for taking Korean) of Korean learners and ethnic identity development stages of heritage learners at the University of Kansas. 

Many Korean language teachers may agree that the most challenging task is to teach mixed classes of heritage learners and non-heritage learners.  Heritage students consist of 1.5 generation (born in Korea, then immigrated to US), 2nd generation (American-born Koreans), adopted Koreans, and half Koreans.  Their language skills vary, but they study Korean because they considered Korean their heritage language.  This paper reports a study of the ethnic identity developmental stages of heritage learners.  Also, the students?motivational orientations from free responses and writing samples are analyzed.           

Research Questions

  1. What are Korean learners?demographic characteristics?
  2. What stages of ethnic identity development are Korean heritage students in?
  3. What factors are involved in heritage students?retaining and losing their mother tongue?
  4. What are Korean learners?motivational orientations?


Twenty-six students enrolled in Korean 104, 108, 204, 208 at the University of Kansas participated in this study. 

Data Collection Procedure

Free responses of 26 students about the motivation orientation (reasons for taking Korean classes), reflective essays, and two interview data were collected. Free responses and writing samples were typed, and the interviews were audio-taped and transcribed.  The data were analyzed qualitatively. 


  1. Heritage students consist of immigrants (1.5 generation), American-born Koreans (2nd generation), adopted Koreans, and half-Koreans (one parent is Korean).
  2. Immigrants and American-born Koreans shared similarities, but formal language education experience affected their language skills.  These students reported that their listening and speaking skills were already quite good.  Therefore, the students with formal learning experience wanted to improve writing skills, while the students with no formal learning experience expected to learn speaking, reading, and writing.   
  3. Half-Korean students differed from the immigrants and American-born Korean students.  Half-Korean students? language skills are very low (many of them are true beginners) although they reported to be quite familiar with Korean culture and value.  They received no formal Korean language education. Some of them reported that their first language was Korean, but they completely lost it.  A majority of half-Korean students wanted to understand Korean and communicate with family or native speakers.
  4. Heritage learners?ethnic identity developmental stages are in stage 3 (Ethnic Emergence) and stage 4 (Ethnic Identity Incorporation).
  5. Female heritage learners tend to learn Korean to communicate with their mothers more proficiently.
  6. Comprehensible input is important for heritage students?retaining or acquiring of Korean.
  7. Non-heritage students reported that they took Korean class because their best friend was Korean, one student wanted to teach English in Korea, and still another student wanted to learn Korean to teach Tae Kwon Do.  All of them wanted to travel and communicate with Koreans.


It is of utmost importance to find out learner variables that are related to the students? motivation, needs, and expectations.  Finding students?motivational factors can help educators better understand Korean learners.  Although a majority of Korean programs cannot provide advanced classes or two-track courses, administrators and educators at the universities have to understand that the students really need various Korean language classes due to the background differences in the student composition. The findings from this research can shed light for teachers and administrators to develop the curriculum and instructional models.         


A Review of Research in Korean as a Foreign Language

Hye-Sook Wang

Brown University

            This paper aims to 1) review studies conducted on teaching Korean as a second or foreign language in the past seven years, 2) to make an assessment of the status-quo of research in this area, and 3) to provide directions for future research.

            Although the Korean language has been taught in American colleges and universities for some time and schools offering courses on Korean have significantly increased, the instructional history of this language is relatively short compared to other languages.  As a result, we are faced with more questions than answers, and studies specifically focusing on issues of Korean as a Foreign Language (henceforth KFL) were few until quite recently. 

            The establishment of the American Association of Teachers of Korean (henceforth AATK) in 1994 was instrumental in promoting Korean language education in general and research on KFL in particular.  The Korean Language in America, the proceedings of the AATK, is the only publication that deals exclusively with teaching Korean language in an American context.  In fact, it has been the center for teachers and researchers alike to discuss issues and concerns in Korean language education.  There has been a substantial growth both in the volume of studies and the scope of investigation within a short period of time.  However, my preliminary review seems to suggest that data-driven empirical studies are lacking.  In addition, while some topics are better researched, other aspects (e.g. vocabulary teaching, socio-pragmatic aspects, etc.) appear to have been neglected. 

            In this paper, articles published in The Korean Language in America over the past seven years will be reviewed with respect to the topic, method, authorship and findings.  Such review will enable us to better understand what needs to be done and will also help teachers incorporate the findings into their teaching.


A Pedagogical Approach to Han Yong-Un’s Poetry:

Reading the East Asian Meanings through Comparison with Lu Xun

(한용운 읽기의 방법론: 루쉰(魯迅)과의 비교를 통한 동아시아적 의미 읽기)

Sai Jong Yoo, Rutgers U/Hanshin U

 Choon Sung Yim, Mokpo U

      A writer’s world view is bound to be revealed through his work.  A literary work talks to the reader about existential conflicts and other universal problems of life by recreating the world view through an aesthetic medium. Han Yong-Un is known and evaluated as a Buddhist monk, an independence movement worker, a revolutionist and also a writer.  He stands out from other Korean literary figures because he is, in every sense, a true literary man, and because his life transcends the boundary of literature. Reading Hans work in a literature class poses the problems of (1) how we are to approach the various aspects and characteristics of Hans writing, (2) how we are to incorporate the complicated historical era and background that he is from, as well as (3) how we are to experience his writing today with students. A lecture that does not connect with students on an emotive platform will only go so far as transferring literary and historical information to them and be dry.  If the reading of a novel in class requires that its readers participate in the structure of conflict through the descriptiveness of the novel, it can be said that the reading of poetry in class requires that its readers occupy a single aspect of life that is condensed and expressed in a poem. I believe that this is also significant as the methodological answer to literary education. Based on these problems, this paper will explore how the poetry of Han should be taught in classrooms.  That is, more specifically, how we should explore the world of the writer as well as the world of poetry with students.

      We will examine Redundant Words and Dear Reader, which are the first and last poems from Hans collection of poetry titled The Silence of My Beloved.  From beginning to end, The Silence of My Beloved is a collection in which the author weaves consciousness of subject matter with descriptive order by linking them together. The first and last poems speak directly to readers, and through close reading we will find important clues regarding how we should read the poetry in The Silence of My Beloved.  In addition to analyzing the poetry of Han, we will compare it to Introductory Poem from a collection titled Wild Grass by Lu Xun, who was a Chinese writer, revolutionist, and also a man of thought. Both authors were prominent leaders of their nations for anti-colonialism and anti-traditionalism and also shared an unnamed East Asian homogeneity when it came to their world views, ways of life, anguishes, and aspirations. Entering the world of poetry created by Han and Lu provides readers with the opportunity to relish and experience what happens when artistic worlds encountered a critical era, that is, the present and future reality of East Asia. It is, in essence, experiencing the origin of imagination that was inserted in a modernistic and emblematic account. The Beloved in Hans poetry was a metaphor for the hearts of Korean people, and the Wild Grass of Lus poetry was a metaphor for the masses of Chinese people. These metaphors provide us with a better understanding of the writers worlds and how they resisted the dark age, in addition to an exploration of dichotomies such as light and darkness, love and hate, freedom and restriction, and hope and despair.     

      In regards to methodology of analyzing poetry, the following steps are recommended. First, students should read the poem and express their feelings and impressions by using an abundance of adjective and descriptions. The impressions left on students after this first reading should be compared to the impressions from a second reading done after learning about the biographical facts of the poet as well as the historical and social background of the era. This will allow each student to become conscious of his or her own subjective views and individual ideas and further objectify the poetry reading process. Second, students should try to understand poetry through individual words in close readings. For example, in the first poem, Redundant Words in The Silence of My Beloved, Han explains in detail what the Beloved is. This provides crucial clues in understanding its relationship to freedom, one of the most essential aspects of Hans thoughts.  By comparing and analyzing what individual words from Hans (e.g. the Beloved, freedom and waiting) and Lus (wild grass, life. hope) poems signify in a nationalistic, social and political sense, students and instructors should evaluate the historical import and the East Asian modernistic value of the poetry by Han and Lu.  Finally, students should try to understand poetry through recital.  After reciting it, students should record or express their impressions again in order to discern the effectiveness of responding to a lecture tailored for poetry. 

      Both writers found their beloved by braving the current era, and saw their beloved by transcending the period that forced them to historical despair and historical defiance.  They acknowledged reality thorough the spirit of denial and heroically exhausted themselves with the spirit of resistance. We continue to read their poetry in classes because the conventional modernistic lives that both lived still present symbolic implications to us today, and further allow us the opportunity to scrutinize the inseparable relationship between literature and society.


Can Korean Learners Distinguish the Polite Speech Style from the Impolite Speech Style?

Sangseok Yoon

University of Hawaii

     The idea of this study is taken from Haruko Cook (2001), who investigated if the learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) were able to distinguish the two styles in question in Japanese. In her study, many JFL learners failed to distinguish them. The purpose of this study was to see if the learners of Korean as a foreign language (KFL) could judge the politeness of a person’s speech styles using their knowledge of the Korean honorifics, which they have learned in class. Furthermore, an attempt was made to find out what kinds of style-related errors are salient and then to address the problems so that Korean honorifics might be better taught.

     In the classroom, a great deal of time is devoted to teaching honorific features since they are not only important but also hard to learn. Therefore, the students are expected to be familiar with the honorific forms, such as sentence enders, subject honorific suffix, relevant words etc. However, in actual conversations, students often fail to use appropriate polite styles, and they cannot even differentiate polite styles from impolite ones.

     In this study, many students did well on the written grammatical judgment test. However, as in Cook's study, they had difficulty in distinguishing the two styles on the listening test. Moreover, they didn’t have enough knowledge that what speech level should be or should not be used in a situation that is very formal and requires politeness. Also they fail to distinguish inappropriate use of address/reference terms.

            These findings show that KFL learners lack the understanding of social function of honorifics, and pragmatic approach in teaching Korean is required in a classroom.


Cook, Haruko 2001. Why can’t learners of JFL distinguish polite from impolite speech style? Pragmatics in Language teaching. New

       York: Cambridge University Press.


 한국어교육에서 문학교육 방법: 현대시를 중심으로


서울대 학교

외국어로서의 한국어교육에서 문학교육의 필요성에 대해 필자는 여러 기회에 논의한 있다. ) 최근 관련 학회에서 특강으로 발표된 다음 글을 대표적인 예로 있다.

    윤여탁, [문학교육과 한국어교육], 2003 IAKLE 춘계학술대회 자료집, 2003. 4.

  자리에서 필자는 한국어교육에서 문학교육의 방향을 대략 가지로 제시하였다. 하나는 문학을 통한 한국어교육으로 경우는 다시 문학을 활용한 한국어 의사소통 교육과 문학을 통한 한국의 사회 문화 교육으로 세분화할 있다. 문학 작품을 활용하여 의사소통 능력 함양이라는 언어 능력 함양과 문학 작품에 반영된 사회 문화에 대한 이해를 통해서 문화 능력 함양을 도모할 있다.

전자는 문학 작품을 교수-학습의 제재로 삼아서 말하기/듣기, 읽기/쓰기와 같은 언어 기능을 신장시키는 것으로, 자국어교육은 물론 외국어교육에서 방법론이 꾸준하게 모색된 있다. 이와는 달리 후자는 문학 작품을 학습함으로써 목표어의 사회 문화를 이해하고, 나아가서는 이같은 사회 문화에 적합한 언어를 구사할 있는 능력을 기르는 것을 문학교육의 목표로 한다.

다른 하나는 문학교육의 목표를 한국학 또는 한국 문학의 차원에서 접근하여, 한국 문학 자체에 대한 교수-학습을 목표로 있다. 주로 한국 문학의 실체와 속성에 대해서 교수-학습함으로써 문학 능력을 함양하고, 세계 문학 속에서 한국 문학의 보편성과 특수성에 대해 이해함을 목적으로 하는 경우이다. 한국학의 전공 분야로 한국 문학을 배우는 경우가 대표적인 예이다.

경우 학습자가 단계 학습 과정에서 습득한 문학 능력이나 학습자의 모국어 문학과 목표 언어인 한국어로 쓰인 한국 문학을 비교 학습하는 비교문학적 관점이 적용될 있다. 이를 통하여 문화의 구체적인 양태(樣態)로서 한국 문학을 보다 심층적으로 이해할 수도 있다. 또한 굳이 한국학을 전공하지 않는다고 하더라도 보다 심도 있게 한국 문화와 문학을 학습함으로써, 교양인, 지성인의 지식과 경험을 갖추기 위해서도 문학교육은 필요하다.

이상의 한국어교육에서 문학교육의 가지 방향과 목표는 자국어교육에서의 문학교육 목표와도 관련이 있지만, 외국어교육이라는 관점에서도 나름대로의 특수성을 지닌다. 더구나 청소년기 한국어 학습자와는 달리 대학생 이상 단계에서의 한국어 학습은 의사소통 능력뿐만 아니라 문화 능력, 나아가서는 문학 능력 함양을 목적 ) 한국어교육에서 문학교육의 목표나 방향도 학습자의 요구에 따라 각각 달라야 한다. 예를 들면, 청소년기의 재외 동포와 외국인이 다르고, 청소년기 학습자와 대학생 이상의 학습자, 생활 한국어(survival Korean) 필요로 하는 학습자와 한국학을 전공하고자 하는 학습자, 모국어 환경 속의 학습자와 목표어 환경 속의 학습자들이 다르다.문학 작품을 통해서 한국어교육을 실시하는 방법에 많은 장점이 있다. 그리고 한국어교육에서 문학교육을 관련된 이상의 가지 방향에서 설정 가능한 목표, 의사소통 능력, 문화 능력, 문학 능력은 위계적인 관계에 놓이기도 하지만 서로 상보적(相補的) 관계를 맺고 있다.

글은 한국어교육에서 교수-학습될 있는 문학교육의 방법론을 현대시 교육을 중심으로 고찰하고자 한다. 이를 위해서 한국어교육에서 현대시를 선택할 얻을 있는 장점을 먼저 밝히고, 이렇게 선택한 한국 현대시를 한국어교육에서 교수-학습하는 방향에 대해서 논술하고자 한다. 그리고 구체적으로는 한국학의 분야로서 한국 문학을 가르치는 방법을 제시하고자 한다. 이유는 현대시를 활용한 의사소통 함양 교육이나 사회 문화 이해 교육에 대해서는 그동안 여러 에서 어느 정도 논의를 진행했기 때문이다: 윤여탁, [한국어 교육에서 문화의 위상과 역할], 국어교육연구7, 서울대 국어교육연구소, 2000; 윤여탁, 웹기반 한국어 교육 프로그램 Korean Tutor 개발 연구, 서울대학교 국어교육연구소 보고서, 2000; 윤여탁, [외국인을 대상으로 한국어 교육의 제문제], 대만 정치대학교 한국어학과 국제학술회의 자료집, 2001; 윤여탁, [한국어 문화 교수 학습론], 박영순교수회갑기념논문집 21세기 한국어교육학의 현황과 과제, 한국문화사, 2002.


Korean Learner’s Corpus: Its Compilation, Design, and Application

Seok-Hoon You

Korea University

Learner’s corpus is a recent effort to compile, classify, and analyze the tendency of language learner’s in the process of acquiring other languages. It has become possible thanks to very recent development of computer technology in parallel with the lexical analysis and lexicography (alias, dictionary making).

Interlanguage, an interim stage of language development, has unique characteristics of its own. First, it can reflect the way how the learners respond to the given language input with their first language background. Second, it shows the internal structure of the intermediate grammar per se. Third, it contains errors and mistakes of various natures. Finally, it shows an operating mechanism of the learner’s cognitive system.

The combination of corpus analysis technology and interlanguage analysis has provided a new perspective in the pedagogical study of learners?attitude and learning process in many aspects. The result has been adopted as an invaluable source of material development, test development, pedagogy development, curriculum reform, and in-class instructional activities.

The goal of this study is to show the limit of conventional approach to the learners?data and the potential of corpus approach in the matter. In order to achieve this goal, we will discuss the following in depth.

1. What we get and what we miss from the learners?data in conventional approach

2. Manners of compiling and manipulating the raw corpus

3. Tools in corpus analysis

4. Manners of dealing with the findings of corpus analysis of given learners?data.

5. What does corpus analysis provide to Korean language teachers?



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